Abaca - A species of banana plant grown almost exclusively in the
Philippines; the fiber of which is processed to become Manila rope. The
abaca is also grown in Central America, Sumatara and Borneo.
Abrasion Resistance - The degree to which a fiber or rope is able to
withstand surface wear and rubbing due to motion against other fibers
(internal abrasion) or an external surface (external abrasion).
Acceleration Stress - Additional stress placed on rope due to increasing the
velocity of load.
After Spring Line - Leads aft from the ship and keeps the ship from moving
Alaskan King Crab Line - A specialty rope of various materials used in King
Crab fishing. Characterized by its firmness of lay.
Anchor Line - Rope with a thimble spliced into one end for attaching an
Awning Cord - Small diameter cord used for many utility purposes; most
commonly a cotton braid with stretch resistant fiber core.
Back Splice - A method to finish off the end of a rope by burying the end
back into the center for braids or splicing the strands back into the body
of a twisted rope.
Backstay - A stay to keep a mast from leaning forward. Can either be fixed
or running. Running backstays are rigged on both sides of the boat and are
set up or slacked off depending on the point of sailing.
Baler Twine - Single ply twine, usually of sisal or polypropylene, used by
farmers for tying bales of hay.
Bend - A knot used to join two ends or two separate ropes together.
Bight - A loop made in any part of a rope, line or chain.
Binder Twine - A twine used in binding and for other utility purposes; most
commonly of natural fibers - jute, sisal, etc...
Bitt - A post or pair of posts with or without a crossbar (norman) for
securing heavy lines; usually in the bow of a boat.
Bitter End - in tying knots or splicing, refers to the end opposite the end
in use. Used to give mechanical advantage when lifting or pulling heavy
Blend - A combination of rope mix of different synthetic fibers to form one
Block - A pulley; there are many kinds - single, double, snatch, cheek,
etc... The rope runs over the sheave set between the two shells (cheeks) of
the block. Also a die of steel in the form of a tube of a desired diameter
into which yarns are fed to be formed into a strand of rope.
Blown Filament - Monofilament polypropylene into which is blown a special
gas during extrusion. This produces a lighter, less expensive and less
strong rope, size for size, than standard polypropylene; also called foamed
Bollard - A round heavy post for securing lines; sometimes on a boat but
usually on a pier.
Bonding - A liquid coating that increases abrasion resistance and prevents
Bow Head Line - Runs through the bullnose and controls aft movement and
assists the breast lines. Forward Spring.
Break-In - A period of use in which the filaments of a rope settle in
together; thus the rope lengthens somewhat.
Breaking Strength - The measured load required to break a rope in tension;
also called tensile strength.
Breast Line - A line that leads to a right angle to the centerline of the
ship and controls the distance from the pier.
Cable Laid Rope - Consists of three small ropes twisted together to form a
Capstan - A rotating cylinder used in winding a rope or cable; also used in
spinning and twisting yarn, twine or rope.
Carrier - Part of a cordage braiding machine that carries the group of yarns
or the single yarn like a single strand through the braid as it is made. May
also refer to that yarn or group of yarns.
Catline - A heavy line used for general hoisting in oil well drilling; also
called cathead line.
Chafing Gear - any device - leather, rope, plastic, etc... used to prevent
lines, sails, decks or spars from wear.
Chalk and Mason Line - Small cords of various fibers, braided or twisted,
used in construction for marking straight lines, the cord must have a rough
texture to hold chalk.
Co-efficient of Friction - Gripping ability important for rope use on
winches and in situations where slipperiness can be dangerous or cause
problems. Gripping depends upon the friction or texture of the rope itself,
its elasticity, creep (or taffy effect, as in monofilament polypropylene),
the area of contact and the ratio of rope size to bitt size.
Co-Polymer - A naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large
molecules made up of a linked series of two or more different repeated
Combo or Combination - Blend of two or more rope materials into one cord.
Composite Rope - A combination of polypropylene/polyester or other
combinations of fiber types.
Cordage - String, line, rope, twisted or braided, generally refers to small
sizes one inch diameter and under.
Cork Line - A floating line, braided or twisted, made of regular or foamed
polypropylene. May have nylon or polyester protective covering for greater
abrasion resistance; also called float line.
Crab Lay - An exceptionally tight twist given to rope used in the crab
fishing industry. The hard lay is necessary to prevent hockling.
Crab Trap Line - A small diameter cord used for lifting crab traps. May be
twisted or braided. Cotton is the most common though various fibers may be
Cracker - Manila rope spliced to the end of a wire rope drilling line.
Creep - The "taffy effect" - a slow flow of synthetic material such as
polypropylene under high temperature or great pressure.
Crimp - To bend, kink, curl or wave a fiber to give it more loft.
Crown Splice - Braiding or splicing the end of a rope into itself to prevent
fraying and unraveling. An alternative to whipping.
Curtain Cord - Small diameter cord used for drapery, traverse cords, etc.
Most commonly made of braided cotton with various fiber cores.
Dacron® - DuPont trademark for polyester.
Diamond Braid - Cordage construction with 8, 12 or 16 strands of fibers
braided under and over each other in a circular direction. The center of the
rope may be hollow, such as in a hollow braid, allowing for easy splicing;
or it may have a center rope of parallel fibers. It is generally stronger
than solid braid, but not as strong as twisted or braid on braid cordage.
Dielectric - A non-conductor or poor conductor of electricity. Polypropylene
has excellent dielectric properties.
Double Braid - Cordage construction with a jacket braided over a braided
rope core; two ropes in one. A very strong and flexible rope that doesn't
hockle, kink or rotate under a load. It is spliceable; also called braid on
braid, double spliceable braid and yacht braid.
Downhaul - In sailing, tackle lifted to the boom gooseneck to keep a proper
strain on the forward edge of the sail.
Drapery Cord - Braided cord of small diameter made usually of cotton with
various types of fiber core, such as fiberglass, polyester, etc. Used as
draw cords, traverse cords and curtain cords.
Dress - Partially closing the knot by drawing up the knot to make sure the
knot is tied correctly.
Dynamic Loading - A sudden or rapid force applied to a rope caused by
stopping, jerking, swinging, etc. In some cases, the force may be two,
three, or even more times the normal load involved. For example, picking up
a tow on a slack line or stopping a falling object, can cause a dynamic
loading of a rope. Working loads do not apply under such conditions.
Easing Out Line - A length of line that is secured at one end, with a bight
thrown over the hook on a hose and run back to a cleat, allowing the hose to
be gently retrieved. Used during high line operations.
Eight Strand - A plaited (or braided) construction of eight strands; usually
found in large sizes for mooring, shipping and towing uses. Exhibits no
torque in heavy towing. Made of various fibers.
Elastic Recovery - The degree that a fiber, yarn, or cord will return to its
original size and shape after deformation from stress.
Elongation - The deformation in the direction of load caused by a tensile
force. Elongation is measured in units of length (e.g. millimeters, inches)
or calculated as a percentage of the original specimen length. Elongation
may be measured at any specified load or at the breaking load.
End - An end is simply one of the twisted yarns that make up the strand. Use
either 1, 2, 3, or more ends to make a strand in a covered braid. There can
be more ends in a core braid.
Extrude - To push a melted resin through small tube shaped dies, thus
forming a single fiber, as in monofilament or multifilament polypropylene.
Split film polypropylene is extruded into sheets of plastic and split into
ribbon-like fibers that are twisted into rope.
Eye - A temporary or permanent loop in a line.
Eye Splice - A fixed loop formed in the end of a line by splicing the end
back into its standing part.
Fathom - A unit of measurement. One fathom is approximately six feet.
Fiber - A natural or synthetic filament capable of being spun into yarn.
Fibrillated - An extruded filament used in making rope. When a single
filament is laid out, it resembles a net of loosely bonded fibers.
Fid - A tapering pin used to open the strands of a rope prior to splicing.
It is sometimes hollow.
Fid Length - A fid length equals 21 times the diameter of the rope or 7
times the circumference.
Filament - A fine or thinly spun thread; a fiber.
Flemish - Method of disposing a line by coiling it tightly flat on deck with
the second inside the first, and so on.
Float Line - A braided or twisted rope made primarily of foamed or regular
polypropylene so that it floats; also called cork line or top line.
Foamed - A monofilament polypropylene into which gas is blown during
extrusion. This produces a lighter weight, less expensive, less strong rope
size for size than standard polypropylene.
Former - Rope making equipment which combines and twists several yarns into
a single strand.
Forward Spring Line - Leads forward from the ship and keeps the ship from
Four Stage Construction - A manufacturing process for making three strand
twisted rope. The four stages are:
Twisting fibers into one ply yarn
Friction Hitch - A knot tied to another rope, or an object so that it can be
adjusted (slid), but stays in place (from friction) when the load is on the
Twisting these yarns into three ply yarn
Forming the strand
Twisting three strands together into finished rope.
Genoa Jib - An oversized jib which overlaps the mainsail and is controlled
outside the rigging and is used chiefly in races to give a boat more speed.
Gooseneck - In sailing, a fitting which holds the boom to the mast.
Guy Ropes - Lines used for steadying, guiding or holding something.
Halyard - A line used to hoist or lower a sail or a flag.
Hand - The feel of rope to the touch, its roughness, slipperiness. etc.
Hand Line - A small diameter rope managed chiefly by direct contact with the
hands; used in fishing and in the utilities industries.
Hank - A looped bundle of cordage. A means of packaging rope or cords by
winding it into a series of loops and tying them about the center.
Hawser - A heavy line of fiber that is over 5" in circumference, used in
mooring or towing vessels.
Heading Twine - A small diameter twine usually of braided nylon used by
commercial fishermen for tying pot heads.
Heat Resistance - The ability of fibers and ropes to resist breakdown, loss
of strength, at high temperatures. Heat resistance is normally an inherent
property of the fiber used in manufacturing ropes.
Heaving Line - Light cotton cord or sash, weighted line thrown across to a
ship or pier when coming alongside to act as a messenger for a mooring line.
Hemp - The fibers of a tall plant, the cannabis sativa, grown in Asia; also
called "marijuana" or "Indian hemp". It may also refer to a fiber similar to
true hemp such as manila.
Henequin - The Agave Fourcroydes, a plant native of Yucatan, Mexico, the
fibers of which are used in making sisal cordage.
Hitch - A knot that attaches a rope to something, like a spar, a post or
HMPE - High Modulus Polyethylene.
Hockle - A back turn; a twist against the lay that cannot be corrected.
Damage that occurs to a rope when a load is suddenly released on the line or
when a rope is twisted and the strands form a loop. A line may look like it
has knots along its length. This type of damage results in substantial loss
of strength which cannot be repaired. It can lessen the tensile strength by
as much as 50%. Braided or plaited rope cannot hockle.
Hollow Braid - An easily spliced cord of a diamond braid construction; most
common in nylon or polypropylene - for example, water ski tow rope.
Hydrolysis - A double decomposition reaction involving the addition of the
elements of water and the formation of an acid and a base, an acid and an
alcohol, or an acid and phenol.
Hydroscopic - Having the ability to absorb moisture from the atmosphere. All
fibers have this property in varying degrees.
Inherently Buoyant (KAPOK) Lifejacket - Used by personnel working topside
during hazardous conditions or evolutions to ensure flotation in the event
the wearer falls overboard. UNREP and boat crews wear them at all times.
Sometimes called the Mae West.
Jenny - A rope making machine that twists several single ply yarn or single
fibers into one larger yarn.
Jib - Triangular sail set in forepart of vessel.
Jute - A natural fiber obtained from either two Asian plants, Corchorus
Capsulans of Corchorus Olitorius; used in sacking and cordage.
Kernmantle - A specially designed rope for use in mountain climbing, rescue,
repelling, and certain safety applications. It is a generic term of German
derivation where mantle refers to the cover and kern the core. These rope
are designed for specific uses and should be used only after proper
Kink - A sharp bend or twist in a rope that permanently distorts the
Laid Up - Twisted.
Lariat - A specially constructed rope with a running noose for catching
livestock; a lasso. Also a rope used for picketing grazing horses or mules.
Lay - To piece together strands to be twisted into rope.
Lead Line - Sinking line used in fishing for lower line holding down nets or
traps. May have a lead filament or core that would make the rope sink; also
called bottom line.
Leaving Line - A barge mooring line used primarily to tie up unattended
barges. A random mix rope is generally used for this purpose.
Left-Handed Twist - An "s" twist or a twist that would be laid out in a
Life Line - An anchored line used as a support to someone who may fall or
drown; a line shot to a ship in distress either to connect it with the shore
or for hauling aboard other life-saving devices; lines rigged to keep the
crew aboard in bad weather.
Life Ring - When an individual is sighted in the water, a ring should be
thrown as close to them as possible to provide flotation and make them
easier to sight.
Lift - The line rigged from the mast which holds the outboard end of the
bosom or spinnaker pole in a desired horizontal position.
Line - A piece of rope, either fiber or wire, which is in use or has been
cut for a specific purpose, such as lifeline, heaving line or lead line.
Linear Density - In rope specifications, means weight per given unit of
length; for example pounds per 100 feet.
Lock Lines - A line led from the bow and stern of a tow to the lock wall.
Lofted - A cordage material is lofted if it is made to yield more feet and
diameter per pound by crimping the fibers and/or loosening the twist or
weave to give more bulk per unit of weight.
Long Splice - A method for joining end to end a three stranded rope without
increasing the diameter of the rope. Not as strong as a short splice, but
essential in splicing rope that must be used in a pulley where rope diameter
cannot be changed.
Loop - Also called a turn; a circle of rope in which the rope crosses over
itself, i.e. the end is placed over the standing part.
Luff - The forward edge of a fore-and-aft sail.
Mainsheet - A rope by which the mainsail is trimmed and secured.
Marline - A cord used for winding around the ends of ropes to prevent
Marlinspike - A pointed spike used to separate strands of rope in splicing.
Mason Line - A utility cord used for alignment in construction and other
Manila - A fiber of the abaca plant used in making rope; also called manila
Maypole Braid - A non-spliceable braid constructed with 8, 12, or 16 strands
of fibers braided around a center core of parallel fibers. The strands from
a herringbone pattern on the rope. May also refer to diamond braid.
MFP - Multi Filament Polypropylene.
MK-1 Lifejacket - Primarily designed for carrier flight deck personnel. It
is also used by other topside working personnel when required.
Modulus - The ratio of change in stress to change in strain following the
removal of crimp from the material being tested; i.e., the ratio of the
stress expressed in either force per unit linear density or force per unit
area of the original specimen, and the strain expressed as either a fraction
of the original length or percentage elongation.
Monkey Fist - Weighted knot in the end of a heaving line. Usually made up of
2 or 3 ounces of lead wrapped up in a rag.
Monofilament - One Fiber. Polypropylene or polyethylene extruded in relatively large round fibers of large denier as compared with the fine fibers of multifilament; usually extruded by the rope manufacturer.
Mooring Line - A rope or cable used to secure or make fast vessel or
Multifilament - Many Fibers. Fine diameter continuous fibers of small denier. Polypropylene, for example, may be extruded as a monofilament. Nylon, used in cordage, is multifilament usually.
Natural Fiber - Any organic fiber such as cotton, jute, manila, sisal, etc.
Noose - A loop that closes under strain.
Nylon - Any of a family of high strength, resilient synthetic materials, the
long chain molecule of which contains the recurring amide group CONH: a
strong synthetic rope fiber known for its ability to absorb sudden shock,
its abrasion resistance, and its chemical and marine organism resistance.
Olefin - Any of a class unsaturated hydrocarbons such as ethylene's having
the general formula cuH2n. Polypropylene and polyethylene are both made of
Outhaul - A tackle or small wire reel winch used to pull the lower rear
corner of a sail aft along a boom.
Pay Out - To let go or slack off a line; it infers that the rate is
Pik - A pik is the exposed area of a strand traveling in a straight line
along the axis of the rope. In a cover braid there are normally 16, 20, 24,
or 32 strands. Strands that revolve to the right are usually referred to as
"Z" strands. Strands that revolve to the left are "S" strands. Some splicing
instructions might also refer to "standard pairs" since braided ropes are
constructed with "S" and "Z" strands for a balanced, torque-free
Plaited - Braided; generally refers to 8-strand large diameter rope in
either a square or round braided construction.
Ply - One of the strands twisted together to make yarn, rope or thread or
twine. Used in combination to indicate a specific number of strands (example
Polished (glazed) - A cotton cord that has been run through a gum and
pigment polish to give it a gloss.
Polyester - A synthetic fiber used for its strength and resistance to
ultraviolet deterioration. It does not have the stretch and elasticity of
nylon and, as a result, will often last longer.
Polyethylene - A floating polyolefin fiber similar to polypropylene, but a
little heavier and not quite as strong.
Polyfoam - A monofilament polypropylene into which gas is blown during
extrusion; thus, producing a lighter weight, less expensive, less strong
rope or twine, size for size, than standard polypropylene. See blown
filament and foamed.
Polyolefin - A synthetic fiber group in which the fiber forming sustenance
is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of
ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units. Polypropylene and polyethylene
represent this group.
Polypro - Short for polypropylene.
Polypropylene - A light weight, strong rope with many uses. It is
waterproof, resistant to rot, and floats. For most rope requirements, it is
the most economical rope to buy.
Pool Rope - A floating three strand twisted rope made of polypropylene, used
as boundary rope in swimming pools; usually identified by one dark blue and
two white strands.
Pot Warp - Specially constructed 3-strand twisted black polypropylene rope
used primarily for lobster fishing, but may be used as crab line, net line
and for various other purposes. Black color resists sunlight deterioration.
Pulley - A device consisting of a sheave mounted in a block or wall, which
is used to achieve mechanical advantage when lifting or pulling heavy
Random Mix - Economy grade rope made from a mixture of synthetic yarns
polypropylene, polyester, and nylon. It is also called random polypro, since
polypropylene usually forms the bulk of the fiber.
Rattail Stopper - A braided tapered line used on mooring lines to eliminate
losing slack when doubling or singling up. Its purpose is to hold tension
while tying off to bits. The rattail is usually secured to an eye on the
deck near the bitts. The tension goes from the Capstan to Rattail to Bitts.
Ready - A smooth round strand made of several yarns just prior to being
twisted or plaited into 3, 4 or 8 strand rope.
Riding Lines - Four inch manila lines about 45 to 60 feet in length used for
hogging to prevent double heads from popping out due to weight.
Right-Hand Twist - A "Z" twist or a twist that would be laid out in a
Ring Buoy - When an individual is sighted in the water, a ring should be
thrown as close to them as possible to provide flotation and make them
easier to sight.
Rope - Cordage; generally refers to cordage over 1" circumference (about the
size of a pencil). It may be twisted or braided, of natural or synthetic
fibers or wire.
Running Rigging - All lines and gear used to trim and set sails.
S-Twist - A left-handed twist; a twist that would be laid out by turning the
yarn or rope in a counterclockwise direction.
Safety Factor - A number that the tensile strength is divided by in order to
determine the safe working load (for new rope in good condition with proper
Sash Cord - A cord used within the frame of certain windows that works on a
pulley to help raise and lower the window easily within its frame. It is
generally a solid braid cotton with various fiber cores for low stretch; a
sash cord may also be used for other utility purposes.
Sea Anchor - Cone shaped, made of canvas, open at one end or both ends.
Equipped with a tow-line at the large end and a tripping line at the other.
Designed to keep the bow of the life raft heading into the seas.
Seine Twine - A small diameter twine either brai9ded or twisted most
commonly of nylon; used in making fish nets, net repairs, fishing line,
chalk line, duck decoy, anchor lines and many other utility uses.
Seize - To lash or bind ropes together.
Set - To close or tighten a knot.
Shackle - A small U-shaped fitting often used to join the thimble in an eye
splice to the fitting. The open end is connected by a screw pin. (A snap
shackle has a spring loaded pin.)
Sheave - A grooved wheel or roller in a block or pulley over which the rope
Short Splice - Method for joining rope, end to end, when maximum strength is
desired when an increase in diameter is acceptable and/or when only a small
amount of rope can be spared for making a splice.
Shock Cord - An elastic cord used for tie down purposes, snubbing gear, etc.
Made of elastic rubber core with a braided synthetic fiber jacket.
S.I.M.A. Extrusion Technology - The most advanced technological solution in
the field of fibrillated and non-fibrillated PP and HDPE tapes production,
designed for the fabrication of twisted rope, fishing nets, insulated
cables, baler twine, binder twine and other industrial applications.
Sisal - The fiber of the Agave Sisalana used for making cordage and rope.
May also refer to the Henequin or Agave Fourcroydes, a plant native to
Skein - A continuous length of yarn or cord of any desired length, in the
form of a collapsible coil.
Ski Tow Rope – For Water; Usually a small diameter hollow braid
polypropylene rope used for pulling water skiers behind motor boats. For
Snow; Usually a three strand twisted rope of various synthetic fibers
attached to a motor, this rope pulls skiers uphill.
Slip - To use a loop (bight) of rope instead of the end when closing a knot
to make untying the knot easy.
Sliver - A continuous strand of parallel overlapping natural fibers (manila,
cotton, sisal, jute, etc.) ready for twisting.
Snatch Block - A single sheave block with a hinged strap that can be opened
and the bight of a line inserted.
Solid Braid - A construction of 9, 12 or 18 strands of fiber, lock-stitched
together. It has a smooth, round, firm contour which holds its shape well
under pressure and load. It is excellent in pulleys and winches and whenever
a firm round rope is needed. It is not as strong as other braids nor is it
Spar - In general, any mast, yard, pole or boom.
Spinnaker - A light, very large three cornered sail set flying forward of
all fore stays. Used on racing yachts when running the wind.
Splice - To join two ropes by inter-weaving strands or braids.
Spring Lay - A rope in which each strand consists partly if wire and partly
of fiber. It is composed of six main strands laid around a fiber core. It
will show fish hooks after it has been stressed.
Spun - A fiber that has been texturized by spinning before it is twisted
into yarn, giving it a woolly texture, similar to cotton. It is common in
nylon, polyester and Dacron™.
Standing Part - The main part of the rope not in the knot itself, the rope
not being tied is the standing part.
Standing Rigging – Rigging holding up the masts that is usually not adjusted
Starter Cord - A strong abrasion resistant braided cord usually of nylon;
used for hand-wound gasoline engine starters and other utility purposes.
Stern Line - Runs through the stern chock to control forward movement and
assists the breast lines. Aft Spring.
Stopper Knot - Used to stop the rope from pulling through a cleat, hole or
Strand - Yarns twisted together form a strand. Strands twisted or plaited
together form a rope.
Stringing Line - A line used for extending a wire or cable
Synthetic Fiber - Any non-organic fiber used in rope or cordage manufacture.
Tackle - Also called block and tackle. A means of gaining leverage by a line
run through one or more blocks; usually two or more. The numbers of lines
which support the load determine the mechanical advantage.
Tarred - A coating of tar applied to various fibers, ropes, manila, nylon,
etc. to limit absorbency.
Tensile Strength - The resistance of rope to a force tending to break it;
also called breaking strength, or the force that must be applied to break a
Texturize - To process fibers in such a way as to ass texture and/or loft to
Thimble - Metal ring or eyelet around which a line is spliced. The line fits
into the concave outside; the convex inside bears the strain and wear.
Timberheads - The end of a rib in a ship's frame that projects above the
deck and is used as a bollard.
Topline - Also called float line or cork line; a floating line on top of a
Torque - The tendency of a rope to rotate under a load.
Tow - To pull; also, one or more barges or other floating vessels in charge
of a self-propelled vessel which is transporting it or them.
Trot Line - In fishing, a comparatively short set line used near shore or
Truck Rope - Three strand polypropylene rope made to meet the standards
established by the State of California, for holding down cargo or canvas in
heavy truck transporting.
U.V. Resistance - Ability of a rope fiber to withstand decay due to the
damaging effect of the ultraviolet rays of the sun.
Venetian Blind Cord - A braided cord generally of nylon or cotton with
various fiber cores.
Webbing - A sturdy fabric woven in narrow widths for use where strength is
required as for seat belts, head bands, etc.
Welt Cord - A tape covered cord sewn into a seam as reinforcement or
Whipping - A cord thread used to lash or bind the end of a rope to prevent
Working End - The end of a rope being worked into a knot.
Working Load - Also known as working strength; the weight in pounds that is
recommended for safe working conditions. It is applied to new rope in good
condition with appropriate splices and only under normal service conditions.
Where dynamic loading may occur, the recommended working load should be
Yacht Braid - A braid on braid, double spliceable cord used as running
rigging in sailing; usually polyester over polyester.
Yarn - Long fibers or filaments twisted together.
Yoke Lifejacket - Primarily designed for pack-carrying troops in an
amphibious operation. It will keep an individual afloat even with a full
pack of gear.
Z-Twist - Right handed twist; A twist that would be laid out by turning the
yarn or rope in a clockwise direction.